Jan 01, 2009 bennisons study of the abbasid caliphate is a useful survey of the history and culture of one of the great periods of the islamic world. Aug 31, 2010 amira bennisons engaging history of the abbasid caliphate moves beyond more conventional or drier accounts of political intrigue among ruling elites and sectarian squabbles. The abbasid period wis merkit bi reliance on persie bureaucrats notably the barmakid faimily for govrenin the territories as weel as an increasin. Therefore, caliphate merges two types of leadership, namely, religious and earthly. The sheer size of the caliphate meant that scholars and artists could easily draw inspiration and expand upon the works of other, older civilizations. She offers an admirable if conventional account of the various peoples, events, and ideas that shaped this pivotal moment in world history.
The abbasid dynasty, known to its supporters as the blessed dynasty, which imposed its authority on the islamic empire in 2750, claimed to inaugurate a new era of justice, piety and happiness. Sep 10, 2017 the abbasids defeated the umayyads to claim the caliphate and leadership of the muslim world in 750. The abbasid caliphate was the third of the four great muslim caliphates of the arab empire. A vizier sort of stood between the caliph and the people and, for all intents and purposes, ran the. Baghdad during the abbasid caliphate from contemporary. The abbasids attempted to reunify muslims under the continue reading the rise and fall of the abbasid dynasty. The abbasid state survived for more than five centuries, until it was destroyed by the mongols in 656 ah1258 ad. The history of the abbasid caliphate can be divided into two eras, the first750842 ce known as the golden era of the abbasids, and the second 8421258 ce known as the corruption and dissolution era. The abbasids later also established another city north of baghdad, called samarra an abbreviation of. The word caliph is a conjugate, explained as person who replaces one and maintains his office. Place and role of central asian turks in the history of abbasid egypt.
Abbasid caliphate simple english wikipedia, the free. However almamun, who was the effective governor of the eastern provinces was ambitious. Abbasid caliphate, second of the two great dynasties of the muslim empire of the caliphate. This period initially began during the abbasid caliph harun al rashid, when the. Check your understanding of the rise of the abbasid caliphate with an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. The administration of abbasids caliphate 566 established feudal caste and of an entrenched priesthood. Under the abbasids the capital of the caliphate was moved from damascus to the new city of baghdad. The author adopts a broader and deeper approach, focusing above all on the people. This period is regarded as the golden age of the abbasid caliphate and was followed immediately by civil war between his sons. Being more of god figures than politicians, the abbasid caliphs created the position of vizier.
Nov 20, 20 abbasid caliphate after the collapse of umayyad control, the muslim empire was split into eastern and western territories us andal al ain im sp musl 4. Rudhrawari, abu shuja muhammad ibn alhusayn, 10451095. Abbasid caliph abu jafar al mansoor as his capital. The abbasid caliphate was a major dynasty that ruled over the islamic empire during its peak. This invaluable study oxford, 1900, written by the renowned arabist and historical geographer guy le strange 18541933, covers the history of baghdad during the 8th centuries. Umayyad and abbasid caliphates compared umayyad caliphate. Baghdad during the abbasid caliphate from contemporary arabic. Modern scholarship has devoted considerable attention to the formation and execution of the antiumayyad movement. The abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized neither in spain nor after 787 w of egypt. From common core analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. From the 9th century the rule of the abbasid caliphs in baghdad is often, in many parts of the muslim world, more nominal than real. The abbasids were arabs who descended from muhammads family settled in an area that was once part of the persian empire.
Mar 11, 2019 the abbasid caliphate, which ruled most of the muslim world from baghdad in what is now iraq, lasted from 750 to 1258 a. The abbasid dynasty descended from muhammads youngest uncle, abbas ibn abd almuttalib 566653 ce. What distinguished islam from the other religions of the abbasid empire was not. Using the definition of a golden age as, a time of. The abbasid caliphate was the third of the islamic caliphates to succeed the islamic prophet muhammad shiism from the beginning of the abbasid period 2 ah up to the end of the minor occultation ghaybah assughra 329 ah was a longer per. The abassid caliphate was founded on two disaffected islamic populations. The rise and fall of the abbasid dynasty about history. Abbasid caliphate 750 mid th century after the fall and domination of the umayyad caliphate, the abbasid dynasty served as the second empire within islamic civilization and was under the jurisdiction of abbas ibn abd almuttalib, muhammads youngest uncle. The abbasid caliphate, which ruled most of the muslim world from baghdad in what is now iraq, lasted from 750 to 1258 a. Umayyad caliph abd almalik in 685, the caliphate had won and controlled the diwan.
After seizing power from the umayyad dynasty in 750 ce, the abbasids became the new leaders of the islamic community. Umayyad dynasty established at cordova by abd alrahman 786. Background following elaborate investiture ceremonies in cairo, the abbasid caliph almustan. It wis foondit bi a dynasty descendit frae muhammads uncle, abbas ibn abdulmuttalib 566653 ce, frae that the dynasty taks its name. For the most part, the islamic impetus to the abassid revolution lay in the secularism of the umayyad caliphs. The abbasid period was marked by reliance on persian bureaucrats notably the barmakid family for governing the territories as well as an increasing.
In palestine and syria there are uprisings from supporters of the previous umayyad dynasty, whose base was damascus. The rise of the abbasid caliphate international journal of. Describe and explain the decline of the abbasid caliphate. Caliphate, one of the most discussed issues among muslims following the death of muhammad a. Baghdad as the abbasid capital, the foundation of amazing. What are the achievements of the abbasid caliphate. The abbasid caliphate was the second islamic caliphate. The fifth caliph of the abbasid dynasty, harun alrashid r.
Dec 16, 2016 baghdad was one of the oldest cities in mesopotamia, but it was not until the rise of abbasid caliphate 7501258 that the city became the center of the islamic world. It overthrew the umayyad caliphs from all but alandalus. The dynasty ruled the islamic caliphate from 750 to 1258 ad, making it one of the longest and most influential islamic dynasties. Dec 11, 2015 abbasid caliphate the early islamic empire fell to abbasid control with the overthrow and decimation of the umayyad house in 750 c. The abbasid caliphate indiana university bloomington. They gave taxfarms to governors and military commanders. It overthrew the umayyad caliphate in 750 ce and reigned until it was destroyed by the mongol invasion in 1258.
Abbasid caliphate project gutenberg selfpublishing. The abbasids based their legitimacy as rulers on their descent from the prophet muhammads extended family, not as with some shii directly through the line of ali and his sons. The abbasid caliphate 750 1258 stood was a great islamic empire that dominated two continents. Our model can be used to combine these into a macro. The golden age is said to have begun with the caliph al mansur 75475. The golden age is said to have begun with the caliph almansur 75475. The abbasid caliphs were the holders of the islamic title of caliph who were members of the abbasid dynasty, a branch of the quraysh tribe descended from the uncle of the islamic prophet muhammad, alabbas ibn abd almuttalib the family came to power in the abbasid revolution in 748750, supplanting the umayyad caliphate. The second wave broke on khurasan in 6541256 when chingiz khans grandson, hulagu khan 6141217 6641265, was selected by his brother, emperor mangu khan 6491251 6551257, and the great quriltay, i. What were the factors that lead to the decline of the abbasid. The abbasid caliphate, which ruled the islamic world, oversaw the golden age of islamic culture. The abbasid caliphate chapter 4 the cambridge history.
Abbasid caliphate at greatest extent 786809 other muslim dynasties islamic expansion 750850 byzantine empire saffarid incursions abbasid campaigns qarmatian expansion islamic naval attacks the abbasid caliphate c. Chapter twentyone abbasid civilization and the culture of islam. Thay ruled as caliphs for maist o the caliphate frae thair caipital in baghdad. The last years of the first century ahbeginnings of 8th century ad, witnessed the development of abbasid political activity, which aimed at the destruction of the umayyad caliphate and the establishment of the abbasid state in its place. The abbasid dynasty descended from muhammads uncle, alabbas ibn abd almuttalib 566653 ce. They were the rulers of the abbasid caliphate, as well as the. The abbasid period was marked by reliance on persian bureaucrats notably the barmakid family for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of nonarab muslims in the ummah national. Pdf almamun in the abbasid caliphate zubair mustafa. Fatimidswill break away from abbasid rule in egypt in 909 ce. According to lewis the change of dynasty completed a process of development in the organization of the state, which had already begun under the umayyads. In the early period of abbasid rule, almansur, the second caliph of the dynasty, continued the reorganization of the administration of the empire along the lines that had been laid down by his umayyad predecessor, abd almalik. The abbasid caliphate first centred its govrenment in kufa, modrenday iraq, but in 762 the caliph almansur foondit the ceety o baghdad, near the auncient sasanian caipital ceety o ctesiphon. Under the umayyad caliphs the abbasids lived quietly until they became involved in numerous disputes, beginning early in the 8th cent. Their father harun alrashid he was the 6th caliph chose alamin to succeed him, and almanun to become the governor.
During the time of the abbasids, the caliph was usually the son or other closest male relative of the previous caliph. Like the umayyad caliphate before it, the leader of the abbasids was called the caliph. His transition to caliph was not an easy one because of his brother, alamin also wanted the title. They relocated the capital from damascus to a brand new location, a planned out city that was named baghdad. Founded through revolution, it presided over a golden age until it declined due to intrigue, war, and weakness that led to its centuries of powerless existence until its downfall in the hands of the mongols. Under the abbasid caliphate 7501258, which succeeded the umayyads 661750 in 750, the focal point of islamic political and cultural life shifted eastward from syria to iraq, where, in 762, baghdad, the circular city of peace madinat alsalam, was founded as the new capital. It was the third islamic caliphate and overthrew the umayyad caliphate to take power in all but the westernmost fringe of muslim holdings at that timespain and portugal, known then as the alandalus region. The abbasid revolution followed an extended period of clandestine organization centered in the eastern province of khurasan. The abbasid caliphate of cairo tspace university of toronto.
The abbasid caliphate, 7501258 iraq table of contents many unsuccessful iraqi and iranian insurrectionists had fled to khorasan, in addition to the 50,000 beduins who had been sent there by ziyad. A brief history of the abbasid caliphate exploring history. Abbasid caliphate brief history of abbasids islam and. The abassid caliphate 7581258 jewish virtual library. List of books and articles about abbasid caliphate online. It is derived from the word khalf which means to be behind, to succeed, or replace one. The abbasid caliphate first centred its government in kufa, modernday iraq, but in 762 the caliph almansur founded the city of baghdad, near the ancient sasanian capital city of ctesiphon. Alamin was the elder and was nominated as the heir to the caliphate. The seventh caliph to rule in the abbasid caliphate was almamun, who would hold the position from 8 to 833.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The abbasid dynasty descended from muhammads uncle, alabbas ibn abd almuttalib 566653 ce, from whom the dynasty takes its name. The abbasid followers were given a promise for the return to the utopia of muhammads ideals and the early caliphs. Much of the abbasid administration, for example, was left in the hands of welleducated persian civil. Mar 17, 2015 the abbasid caliphate the abbasids in islamic history in islamic history, abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of baghdad, the second of the two great sunni dynasties of the muslim empire, that overthrew the umayyad caliphs. List of books and articles about abbasid caliphate.1054 997 475 589 605 355 298 279 410 292 566 1411 323 396 1354 430 22 202 757 247 871 350 899 1216 196 846 456 157 606 209 882 16 290 505 623 487 1304